The survivor is an essentially American movement of individuals or groups (called survivalists or preppers) who are actively preparing for emergencies, including possible disruptions in the social or political order, on a scale from local to international. Survivors often acquire emergency medical and self-defense training, store food and water, prepare for self-sufficiency and build structures (for example, life-saving or underground shelters) that can help to survive a disaster.

The use of the term survivalist dates back to 1976. [1] The terms prepper and prep are derived from the word prepared, and have gained popularity since the 1990s, partly in reaction to terrorists like Ted Kaczynski and Timothy McVeigh, and stereotypes related to them.


1930s to 1950s 

1950 booklet  Survival Under Atomic Attack  , a publication of the Civil Defense

The origins of the modern Survivalist movement in the United Kingdom and the United States include government policies, threats of nuclear warfare, religious beliefs, and writers who warn of a social or economic collapse in apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction .

Cold War era civil defense programs promoted public atomic bomb shelters, personal fallout shelters, and training for children, such as Duck and Cover. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) has long called on its members to keep a year of food for themselves and their families in anticipation of these opportunities; [3]  but the present teaching only advises a provision of three months. [3]

The Great Depression that followed the Wall Street Krach in 1929 is cited by survivalists as an example of the need to be prepared. [4]  [5]


The increase in the inflation rate in the 1960s, the US currency depreciation, the continuing fear of a possible nuclear exchange between the US and the Soviet Union, and the increased vulnerability of urban centers to shortages of supplies and services. other systems have provoked a number of libertarian thinkers to promote individual preparations. Harry Browne began offering seminars on how to survive a monetary collapse in 1967 with Don Stephens (an architect) who helped build and equip a remote survival retreat. He gave a copy of  the bibliography  of his   original retrospective to each seminar participant.

Articles on the subject have appeared in small-scale libertarian publications such as  The Innovator  and  Atlantis Quarterly  . It was during this period that Robert D. Kephart began publishing  Inflation Survival Letter  [6]  (later renamed  Personal Finance  ). For several years, the newsletter included a continuing section on personal preparation written by Stephens. He encouraged costly seminars across the United States on similar warning topics. Stephens, along with James McKeever and other defensive investment advocates, took part in hard money.


Oregon Gasoline Dealers Show Signs Explaining Lodge Policy During Winter 1973-1974 During Oil Crisis

In the following decade, Howard Ruff warned of the socio-economic collapse in his 1974 book  Famine and Survival in America  . Ruff ‘s book was published during a period of galloping inflation following the 1973 oil crisis. Most items of survival can be found there, including advice on food storage. The book argued that precious metals, such as gold and silver, have an intrinsic value that makes them more usable in the event of a socio – economic collapse than fiduciary money. Ruff later published milder variations of the same themes, such as  How to Prosper in the Next Years  , a bestseller in 1979.

Gun instructor and Colonel Survivor Jeff Cooper wrote on curing retreats against small arms fire. In an article titled “Notes on Tactical Residential Architecture” in PS Letter No. 30 (April 1982), Cooper suggested using the “Vauban Principle”, in which the projected bastion corners would prevent miscreants from approaching. exterior walls of a retreat. all blind spots. Corners with this simplified implementation of a Vauban star are now called “Cooper Corners” by James Wesley Rawles, in honor of Jeff Cooper. [7] Depending on the size of the group needing shelter, the design elements of the traditional architecture of the European castle, as well as the Chinese Fujian Tulou and homes with Mexican walled walls have been suggested for retreats of survival.

In his book  Rawles on Retreats and Relocation  and his survivalist novel,  Patriots: A Survival Novel in Crumbling, Rawles describes in detail the retreat groups that improve brick or masonry homes with steel shutters and doors. strengthened. anti-vehicular ditches, the installation of armored door locks, construction of concertina wire barriers and fougasses, and the establishment of observation / observation posts (LP / OP). Rawles advocates the inclusion of a mantrap vestibule as a “crushroom”. [8]

Bruce D. Clayton and Joel Skousen have written extensively on integrating fallout shelters into retirement homes, but they place less emphasis on ballistic protection and perimeter security than Cooper and Rawles.

Other newsletters and books followed on the heels of Ruff’s first publication. In 1975, Kurt Saxon began publishing a tabloid-sized monthly newsletter called  The Survivor  , which combined Saxon’s editorials with reprints of nineteenth- and early twentieth-century writings on various pioneering skills and ancient technologies. Kurt Saxon used the term  survivalist  to describe the movement, and he claims to have coined the term. [9]

During the previous decade, Don Stephens, a California prep and bookseller, popularized the term ”  retreater”  to refer to people who are preparing to leave cities to settle in remote areas. In 1976, before moving to the northwest, he and his wife wrote and published  the Bibliography of The Survivor ‘s Primer & Up – dated Retreater  .

During a period in the 1970s, the terms  survivalist  and  retreater  were used interchangeably. While the term ”  retreater”  was falling into disuse, many who subscribed to it saw the more rational approach of conflict avoidance and “invisibility” at a distance. On the  other hand, the  survivor  tended to adopt a more media-like, more combative image, “pulled out with looters”. [9]

A newsletter considered by some as one of the most important about survival and survival pensions in the 1970s was the  personal survival letter (“PS”)  (circa 1977-1982). Posted by Mel Tappan, who also wrote  Survival Guns  and  Tappan on Survival  . The newsletter included columns from Tappan himself as well as notable survivors such as Jeff Cooper, Al J Venter, Bruce D. Clayton, Nancy Mack Tappan, JB Wood (author of several armory books), Karl Hess, Janet Groene (travel author), Dean Ing, Reginald Bretnor, and CG Cobb (author of  Bad Times Primer ). The bulk of the newsletter revolved around the choice, construction and logistical equipment of life-saving pensions. [10]  After Tappan’s death in 1980, Karl Hess took over by publishing the newsletter, eventually renaming it  Survival Tomorrow  .

In 1980, John Pugsley published  The Alpha Strategy  . It was on  the New York Times  bestseller  list  for nine weeks in 1981.  [11]  [12]  After 28 years of circulation,  the Alpha strategy remains popular with survivalists and is considered a standard reference on food and household items. coverage against inflation and future shortages. [13]  [14]

In addition to paper newsletters, in the 1970s, survivors established their first online presence with BBS  [15]  [16]  and Usenet forums dedicated to survival and survival pensions.


Another interest in the survivalist movement reached its peak in the early 1980s, with Howard Ruff’s book  How to thrive in the bad years ahead  and the 1980 publication of  Life After Doomsday  by Bruce D. Clayton. Clayton’s book, coinciding with a new arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union, marked a turning point in the readiness of survivors for economic collapse, famine and energy shortages – concerns in the United States. 1970s – to nuclear war. In the early 1980s, sci-fi writer Jerry Pournelle was editor and columnist for  Survive , a survivalist magazine, and was influential in the survivalist movement. [17] Ragnar Benson’s book  Live Off The Land in the City and Country of  1982 suggested that rural survival retreats were both a measure of readiness and a conscious lifestyle change.


Interest in the movement increased during the Clinton administration in part because of the debate over the ban on federal assault weapons and the subsequent passage of the ban in 1994. Interest increased again in 1999 following the fears of the year 2000. Before major efforts have been made to rewrite the computer programming code to mitigate the effects, some authors such as Gary North, Ed Yourdon, and James Howard Kunstler,  [18]Ed Yardeni, Investment Advisor, predicted widespread blackouts, food and fuel shortages, and other emergencies. North and others raised the alarm because they thought the Y2K code fixes were not done fast enough. While several writers have responded to this wave of concern, two of the most survival-oriented texts have been  Boston’s Y2K  (1998) by Kenneth W. Royce and   Mike Oehler’s The Hippy Survival Guide by Y2K . Oehler is an advocate of underground life, who is also the author  of The Underground House Book at $ 50 and up  ,  [19]  which has long been popular in survival circles.


Another wave of survivors began after the attacks of 11 September 2001 and subsequent bombings in Bali, Madrid and London. This resurgence of interest in survivalism seems to be as strong as the attention of the 1970s on the subject. Fear of war, bird flu, environmental disasters and global climate change, economic uncertainty and humanity’s apparent vulnerability after the 2004 Indian Ocean and Hurricane Katrina earthquake and tsunami aroused growing interest for survivors. [20]

Many books were published following the Great Recession of 2008 and later, offering life-saving advice for various potential disasters, ranging from energy shortages and crashes to nuclear or biological terrorism. In addition to the books of the 1970s, blogs and Internet forums are popular means of disseminating information about the survivor. Online survival sites and blogs discuss survival vehicles, survival retreats, emerging threats and survivalist groups.

Economic problems emerging from the collapse of credit caused by the US subprime mortgage crisis of 2007 and global grain shortages  [21]  [22]  [23]  [20]  have prompted a broader sample of to prepare. [23] [24]

The advent of the H1N1 swine flu in 2009 sparked a keen interest in the survivor, which significantly boosted readiness book sales and made the survivor more common. [25]

These developments led Gerald Celente, founder of the Trends Research Institute, to identify a trend he calls “neo-survivalism”. He explained this phenomenon in a radio interview with Jim Puplava on December 18, 2009:  [26]

working together and understanding that we are all together and when we help each other, it will be the best solution. “

This last aspect is emphasized in  The Trends Research Journal  : “The intelligently deployed community spirit is the fundamental value of neo-Survivalism”. [27]

2010 to today

A number of popular films and television programs  [  definition needed  ]  , such as the National Geographic Channel of  Doomsday Preppers  , have also emerged recently  [  when? ]  To capitalize on what  the contributor’s Entertainment  Los Angeles Times  Mary McNamara called “the zeitgeist of today the fear of a changing world event.”  [28] In addition, apocalyptic ideas disseminated primarily online in relation to the 2012 phenomenon The misunderstandings surrounding the Mayan calendar fueled the activities of some survivors during the period before the end of the world in December 2012.

After the shooting of Sandy Hook Elementary School in 2012, the community of “attendants” was scrutinized by the public after the mother of the mass murderer was revealed to be a survivor. [29]

Overview of scenarios and perspectives  

Survivalism approached by its members in different ways, depending on their circumstances, their mentalities and their particular concerns for the future. [30]  The following are characterizations, although most (if not all) survivalists fall into more than one category:

Oriented security preparation

While these people accept the long-term viability of Western civilization, they learn the principles and techniques needed to survive life-threatening situations that can happen anytime and anywhere. They are preparing for these calamities as structural fires, dog attacks, physical confrontations, snake bites, lightning strikes, car breakdowns, third world travel problems, bear encounters, floods sudden, home invasions, and train wrecks. [31]

Desert survival focus

This group insists on being able to stay alive for indefinite periods in life-threatening wildlife scenarios, including plane crashes, shipwrecks and losses in the woods. The concerns are: thirst, hunger, climate, terrain, health, stress and fear. [31]

Self-defense trained

This group focuses on the survival of brief encounters of violent activities, including personal protection and its legal ramifications, awareness of danger, the cycle of John Boyd (also known as OODA -observe, guide, decide and act ), martial arts, tactical self-defense and tools (both lethal and non-lethal).

Natural disaster, brief

This group is made up of people who live in areas prone to tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, forest fires, earthquakes or heavy snowfall and who want to prepare for possible emergencies. [32]  They invest in equipment to fortify structures and tools to rebuild and build temporary shelters. While assuming the long-term continuity of society, some may have invested in a custom built shelter, food, water, medicine and enough food to recover from contact with the rest of the world. . [31]

Natural disaster, prolonged

This group is concerned about the 2 to 10 year weather cycles that have occurred historically and can lead to poor harvests. [22]  They could store several tons of food per family member and have a strong greenhouse with non-hybrid canned seeds. [33]  Wood and natural gas can be processed into edible human foods using a number of different mechanisms. [34] Alternative foods are inexpensive before the disaster but need to be intensified after the disaster. A research agenda for the analysis of specific food supply resilience decisions has been proposed as the resilience of the food supply does not only require food itself, but also food production and distribution systems. [35]

Natural disaster, indefinite / multigenerational

This group considers an end to society as it exists today in the possible scenarios: global warming, global cooling, degradation of the environment,  [23]  the warming or cooling of watercourses Gulf, or a period of severe cold winters caused by a supervolcan, an asteroid strike, or large-scale nuclear proliferation.

Biochemical scenario

This group is concerned about the spread of deadly diseases, biological agents and neurotoxic gases, including swine flu,  E. coli  0157, botulism, dengue fever, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, SARS, rabies, hantavirus, anthrax, plague, cholera, HIV, ebola, Marburg virus, Lhasa virus, sarin and VX. [36] In response, they could be equipped with full NBC masks (nuclear, biological and chemical), polyethylene suits, PVC boots, nitrile gloves, plastic sheets and tape.


Some marketers of literature and survival products claim that an increase in the human population affects available freshwater, food, health care, the environment, the economy, consumerism and the spread of diseases. These traders seek to encourage sales of items that would respond to an accident of the Malthusian population. 

Investors in monetary disasters

Crowd in New York City’s American Union Bank at a 1931 Bank held at the beginning of the Great Depression

Investors in the event of a monetary catastrophe believe that the Federal Reserve system is fundamentally flawed. Newsletters suggest strong assets of gold and silver bullion, coins and other investments focused on precious metals, such as mining stocks. They prepare the paper money to become useless by hyperinflation. At the end of 2009, this is a popular scenario. [37]  [38]  [39]  [40]

Biblical Eschatologist

These people study the end-time prophecy and believe that one of the various scenarios could happen in their lives. While some Christians (and even people of other religions) believe that the Rapture will follow a period of Tribulation, others believe that the Rapture is imminent and that it will precede the Tribulation (“Pre-Trib Rapture  “). ]  “). There is a wide range of beliefs and attitudes in this group. They go from pacifists to armed encampment, and have no food stock (leaving their livelihood to God’s providence) to store food for decades.

Doomers of advanced oil

Although there is a general debate on whether the world supply of oil reserves has reached a peak and the need for alternative fuels, this group believes that peak oil poses a short-term threat to civilization. Western  [42]  and take appropriate measures  . ]  usually involving relocation to an agricultural self-sustaining survival shelter. [44]


The followers of James Wesley Rawles  [45]  often prepare for multiple scenarios with fortified and well-equipped rural survival retreats. [46]  This group anticipates a short-term crisis and seeks to be well armed and ready to provide charity in the event of a disaster. [43]  Most take a “deep larder” approach and store food in recent years, and a central tenet is geographic seclusion in the northern interstate region of the United States. [47]  They emphasize practical self-reliance and the skills of the institution. [47]

Oriented to the medical crisis

This group has a complete medical pack in the house and car. [31]  and donates blood and is active in the Red Cross. They are concerned with vehicle accidents and emergencies involving injuries. The main goal is to help family, friends and the community survive medical emergencies.

Legal continuity oriented

The main concern of this group is to maintain some form of legal system and social cohesion after a breakdown in the technical infrastructure of society. They are interested in works like The Postman by David Brin,  [48]  The Knowledge of Lewis Dartnell: How to Rebuild Our World from Scratch,  [49]  or The American Common Law by Marcus B. Hatfield: The Customary Law of the American nation. [50]

Common preparations 

The usual preparations include the creation of a refuge, refuge or secret or defensible trapping site in addition to the storage of non-perishable food, water, water purification equipment, clothes, seeds, firewood, defensive weapons or hunting. ammunition, agricultural equipment and medical supplies. Some survivalists do not make such thorough preparations and simply incorporate a “Be Prepared” perspective into their daily lives.

A bag of material, often called “bug on the bag kit” (BOB) or “get out of dodge” (BON),  [51]  can be created that contains basic necessities and useful objects. It can be of any size, weighing as much as the user is able to carry.

A “72-hour kit” can be assembled, which contains essential emergency items. In most community emergencies, it takes at least three days (72 hours) for help to arrive. Therefore, there should be three days of food, water and personal items for each family member. The 72-hour survival kit also includes a first aid kit, important phone numbers and documents, as well as plans for outside contacts and appointments. There are also 72-hour insulation kits that include the use of a 5-gallon bucket as a toilet, tablets for water purification and personal hygiene supplies.

The American Red Cross recommends keeping such a 72-hour supply of essential items in case evacuation is needed. [52]  They recommend a two-week supply of such items, including water, to overcome a disaster in the home. [52]  Suggestions for the construction of these kits are available on the Red Cross website.

The most ardent survivalists aim to remain self-sufficient for the duration of the collapse of the social order, or indefinitely if the breakup is intended to be permanent (a “Third Dark Age”) – a possibility popularized in the 1960s by Roberto Vacca of the Club of Rome. Some survivalists  [  who? ] allow contingency that they can not prevent this breakup, and prepare to survive in small communal groups (“group retreats”) or “alliance communities”.

Change concerns and preparations 

The concerns and preparations of the survivors have changed over the years. During the 1970s, fears were economic collapse, hyperinflation and famine. Preparations included food storage and survival retreats in the country that could be cultivated. Some survivors stored precious metals and lapping goods (such as common caliber ammunition) because they assumed that paper money would lose its value. In the early 1980s, nuclear war became a common fear and some survivors built fallout shelters.

In 1999, many people purchased electric generators, water purifiers and food for months or years in anticipation of widespread power outages due to the 2000 computer bug.

Instead of moving or making such home preparations, many people also plan to stay in their current locations until a real breakdown occurs, when they – in the jargon of survival – “jostle” or “Get out of Dodge” to a safer place.

Religious beliefs 

The Horsemen of the Apocalypse  , represented on a woodcut by Albrecht Dürer (c. 1497-1498), present themselves in groups, with an angel announcing them, to bring death, famine, war and plague to the world. ‘man. [53]

Other survivors have more specialized concerns, often related to adherence to apocalyptic religious beliefs.

Some evangelical Christians support an interpretation of biblical prophecy known as post-tribulation rapture, in which the world will have to go through a seven-year war period and a global dictatorship known as the “Great Tribulation”. Jim McKeever helped popularize survival preparations among this branch of evangelical Christians with his 1978 book, The  Christians Go Through the Tribulation, and How to Prepare for it  .

Common emergency preparations 

People who are not part of apolitical-oriented survival groups or religious groups also make emergency preparations. This may include (depending on location) preparation for earthquakes, floods, power outages, blizzards, avalanches, forest fires, terrorist attacks, nuclear plant accidents, spills of hazardous materials, tornadoes and hurricanes. These preparations can be as simple as following the Red Cross and the US Federal Emergency Management Agency. (FEMA) by keeping a first aid kit, shovel and extra clothes in the car, or keeping a small emergency supplies kit containing emergency food, water, space blanket and other essential items.

Economist and Senior Financial Advisor Barton Biggs is a proponent of preparation. In his 2008 book,  Wealth, War and Wisdom  , Biggs has gloomy prospects for the economic future, and suggests that investors take measures of survival. In the book, Biggs recommends that his readers “assume the possibility of a breakdown of the civilized infrastructure.” He even goes so far as to recommend establishing life-saving pensions:  [54]  “Your refuge must be self-sufficient and able to grow some kind of food, “writes Mr. Biggs. “It should be well stocked with seeds, fertilizers, preserves, medicines, clothes, etc. Think  Swiss Family Robinson. Even in America and Europe, there may be moments of riot and rebellion when law and order are temporarily completely destroyed. ”  [23]

For global catastrophic risks, food storage costs are becoming impassable for the majority of the population  [55],  and for some of these disasters, conventional agriculture would not work because of the loss of much of the light. solar (nuclear winter or supervolcan). In other situations, substitute foods are needed, which involves converting natural gas and wood fiber into edible foods for humans  [56].

Survivor Terminology


Survivors retain their group identity by using specialized terminology that is not generally understood outside their circles. They often use military acronyms such as OPSEC and SOP, as well as common terminology among adherents to gun culture or the peak oil scenario. They also use terms specific to their own survival groups; Common acronyms include:

  • Alpha Strategy: The practice of storing additional consumable items, such as protection against inflation and for barter and charity. Designed by John Pugsley. [57]  [58]
  • Ballistic Wampum: ammunition stored for barter purposes. Designed by Jeff Cooper. [57]  [59]
  • BOB: bug-out bag. [57]  [60]
  • BOL: bug-out location. [57]  [61]
  • BOV: Bug-out vehicle. [57]  [62]
  • Doomer: A peak oil that believes in a Malthusian social collapse. [57]  [63]
  • EDC: Wear every day. What we wear at all times in case a disaster occurs while we are outside. Also refers to the normal port of a gun for self-defense, or (as a name) the gun that is worn.
  • EOTW: End of the World  [64]
  • EROL: Excessive law rule. Describes a situation where a government becomes oppressive and uses its powers and laws to control citizens. [65]
  • Goblin: A criminal villain, invented (in the survivalist context) by Jeff Cooper. [57]  [66]
  • Golden Horde: The large mixed horde of refugees and looters that will spill into WTSHTF metropolitan areas. Invented (in the survivalist context) by James Wesley, Rawles. [57]  [67]
  • GOOD: Get out of Dodge (city). Escape from urban areas in case of disaster. Designed by James Wesley Rawles. [57]  [68]
  • GOOD kit: Get out of the Dodge kit. Synonym of bug-out bag (BOB). [57]  [69]
  • INCH PACK: I never go home. Is a package that has everything you need to go out in the woods and never come back to society. It is a heavy, loaded package of tools that contains the right equipment to do anything from sheltering to food. The pack is designed to allow someone to survive almost indefinitely in the woods, which requires skills to remove as well as the right choice of equipment, because you can only carry a lot. For example, instead of transporting food, we carry seeds, steel traps, a long bow, yoyo and other fishing gear. [  citation needed  ]
  • Pollyanna or Polly: Someone who is in denial of the disruption that could be caused by the advent of a large-scale disaster. [57]  [70]
  • Prepper: A survivalist synonym   that came into common use in the early 2000s. Used interchangeably with  survivalist  as many of the  retreaters  were in the 1970s. Refers to whoever is prepared or makes preparations.
  • SHTF: Shit hits the fan  [67]
  • TEOTWAWKI: The end of the world as we know it. The  term  has been used since at least the early 1980s (title of call to  Threads  (1984).  [57]  [71]  [72] However, the  acronym  may have been coined in 1996, in the Usenet newsgroup misc.survivalism.  [73]  [74]
  • Uncivilization: A generic term for a great disaster. [75]
  • WROL: Without rule of law. Describes a state of society without law possible. [76]
  • YOYO: You are alone. Stuck (in the survivalist context) by David Weed. [57]  [77]
  • Zombie: Unprepared, accidental survivors of a prepared disaster, “who feed on … the preparations of others”  [78]
  • Apocalypse of zombies: used by some writers as a tongue-in-cheek metaphor  [78]  for any natural or man-made disaster  [79]  and “a clever way to draw people’s attention to disaster preparedness” “. [78]  The premise of the zombie squad is: “If you are ready for a scenario where the traveling cadavers of your family and neighbors are trying to eat you alive, you will be ready for almost anything. [80]  Although “there are … who are seriously preparing for a zombie attack”. [81]

Representation of the media

Despite a lull following the end of the Cold War, survivalism has gained more attention in recent years, resulting in increased survivalist lifestyles and increased control. A National Geographic show interviewing survivalists,  Doomsday Preppers  , was a ”   scoring bonus ”  [82]  and “the most watched series of the network”,  [83]  yet Neil Genzlinger in  The New York Times  declared “an absurd excess”. . What is an easy target, the pre-writer’s worldview is for ridicule, “noting”, how much these shows are anti-life offensively, full of contempt for humanity. ”  [84]

Gerald Celente, founder of the Trends Research Institute, noted how many modern survivalists deviate from the classic archetype, calling this new style “neo-survivalism”; “You know, the caricature, the guy with the AK-47 going to the hills with enough ammo and pork and beans to get out of the storm, this [neo-survivalist] is very different from that “. [27]

Perceived extremism

In popular culture, survivalism has been associated with paramilitary activities. Some survivors take active defensive measures that have military roots and involve firearms, and this aspect is sometimes emphasized by the media. [30]  [85]  Kurt Saxon is a supporter of this approach to armed survival.

The potential for social collapse is often cited as a motivation to be well armed. [86]  Thus, some non-militarist survivalists developed an involuntary militaristic image.

The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in its campaign “If you see something, say something” says that “the public should report only suspicious behaviors and situations … rather than beliefs, thoughts, ideas, expressions, … “. [87]  However, it is alleged that a list of DHS characteristics of potential domestic terrorists used in law enforcement training includes “survival literature” (fictional books such as  Patriots  and  One Second After  are mentioned by name). ) “,” Self-sufficiency (storage of food, ammunition, hand tools, medical supplies) “, and” Fear of economic collapse (purchase of gold and barter goods) “. [88]  [89]

The Missouri Information Analysis Center (MIAC) released a report to law enforcement officials on February 20, 2009 entitled “The Modern Militia Movement,” which describes common symbols and media, including included political stickers. The report appeared on March 13, 2009 on WikiLeaks  [90] and controversy ensued. It was argued that the report was derived solely from publicly available trend data on militias. [91]  However, because the report included political profiling, a letter of apology was issued on March 23, 2009, explaining that the report would be edited to remove the inclusion of certain components. [92] On March 25, 2009, MIAC was ordered to stop distributing the report. [93]


Survival and survival groups and forums – both formal and informal – are popular around the world, especially in Australia  [94]  [95]  Austria,  [96]  Belgium, Canada,  [97]  France,  [98] ]  [99]  Germany. [100] (often organized under the guise of “adventuresport” clubs),  [101]  Netherlands,  [102]  New Zealand,  [103]  Russia,  [104]  Sweden,  [105]  [106]  [107]  Kingdom United,  [108]  and the United States. [23]

Other related groups

The followers of the movement back to the land inspired by Helen and Scott Nearing, sportingly popular in the United States in the 1930s and 1970s (illustrated by  the  magazine  Mother Earth News  ), share the same interests with regard to self-sufficiency and preparation. Back-to-the-landers differ from most survivalists in that they are more interested in ecology and counterculture. Despite these differences,  Earth News  was widely read by both survivalists and back-to-the-landers during the early years of this magazine, and there was some overlap between the two movements. .

Anarcho-primitivists share many features with survivalists, including predictions of an ongoing ecological disaster. Writers such as Derrick Jensens argue that industrial civilization is not sustainable and will inevitably lead to its own collapse. Non-anarchist writers such as Daniel Quinn, Joseph Tainter and Richard Mannings also hold this view. Some members of the Men Going Their Own Way subculture also promote off-grid life and believe that modern society is no longer livable. [109]

In popular culture

Several television programs such as  Doomsday Castle  ,  [110]  Doomsday Preppers  ,  [111]  Man vs. Wild  [112]  and  Man, Woman, Wild  ,  [113]  are based on the concept of survivalism.

In fiction

The themes of survivalism and survival were fictionalized in the print, film and electronic media.