Robinsonade

Robinsonade ( / ˌ r ɒ b ɪ n s ə n eɪ d / ) is a literary genre That icts takes name from the 1719 novel Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe . The success of this novel spawned so many imitations that its name has been used to define a genre, which is sometimes simply a ” desert island story” [1] or a ” narrative castaway “. [2]

The word “robinsonade” was coined by the German writer Johann Gottfried Schnabel in the Preface of his 1731 work Die Insel Felsenburg ( The Island Stronghold ). [3] It is often viewed as a subgenre of survivalist fiction .

Literary form

Robinson Crusoe and “robinsonades” with William Shakespeare ‘s The plot , the story is markedly different.

Robinson Crusoe was influential in creating a colonialization mythology-as novelist James Joyce eloquently noted the true symbol of the British conquest is Robinson Crusoe: “He is the true prototype of the British colonist …”. Later works expanded on and explored this mythology.

Themes

In the archetypical (and eponymous) robinsonade, the protagonist is suddenly isolated from the comforts of civilization, usually shipwrecked or marooned on a secluded and uninhabited island. He must improvise the means of his survival from the limited resources at hand.

Some of the common themes include:

  • Isolation (eg desert island, virgin planet)
  • A new beginning for some of the characters
  • Encounters with native native natives
  • Commentary on society

See also themes for subgenres below.

Utopianism

Unlike Thomas More ‘s Utopia and romantic works qui Nature Depicted as idyllic, Crusoe made it sparse and unforgiving. The protagonist survives by his wits and the qualities of his cultural upbringing, which also enables him to prevail. However, there is a certain amount of civilization from the wilderness. Works that went both in the utopian direction ( Swiss Family Robinson ) and the dystopian direction ( Lord of the Flies ).

Subgenres

There are many works which do not fall into one of the listed subgenres. Swiss Family Robinson , for example, is a robinsonade proper because of Robinson Crusoe .

Robinsonade proper

The robinsonade is the closest to the type, in that it also contains the following themes:

  • Progress through technology
  • A storyline following the triumphs and the rebuilding of civilization
  • Economic achievement
  • Unfriendliness of nature

It is somewhat utopian about the friendliness of nature.

Science fiction robinsonade

The robinsonade genre also includes many space-travel science fiction works.

The basic premise is that our astronauts arrive at new worlds, terraform them if necessary, then live and prosper there, a civilization where none existed before. The vastness of interstellar space, and the constraints of relativistic physics, may well be (possibly robotic) settlements scattered across the galaxy, hidden between hundreds of billions of other stars and planets; and in their new life, they can meet aliens, just as Robinson Crusoe puts Man Friday .

A classic example of an SF robinsonade which has all the elements of the robinsonade is Tom Godwin ‘s Survivors , and JG Ballard ‘ s Concrete Island . Another recent example is Andy Weir’s 2012 The Martian .

Apocalyptic fantasy robinsonade

Sears List of Subject Headings [4] recommends That librarians aussi catalog apocalyptic fantasies-such as Cormac McCarthy ‘s popular novel The Road , or Even Robert A. Heinlein ‘s Starship Troopers -as robinsonades. Dewey Decimal Classification and Relative Index , [5] however, exempts the Revelation of John and other biblical apocalyptic passages from this cataloging rule.

Movie

This section needs expansion . You can help by adding to it . (May 2012)

Robinson Crusoe on Mars is the story of the survivor of a space ship crash on the planet Mars .

Enemy Mine is the SF story of a human and alien enemy Who crash land was barren planetoid and Eventually Cooperate to survive.

The Martian is the story of a human astronaut stranded on Mars after a storm forces the rest of the crew to depart and the effort to recover him.

Comics

Years later, Gold Key Comics , produced a comic series, titled Space Family Robinson , in the early 1960s, and later producer Irwin Allen , created his own version of a similar concept, another Space Family Robinson, known as Lost in Space , for CBS .

The first appearance of a space-faring Robinson family (unrelated to the series’ Robinsons) was published by Gold Key Comics , The Space Family Robinson , December 1962. Space Family Robinson was published as a total of 59 issues, from 1962 to 1982. The first issue was published in December 1962. With issue # 15 (January, 1966), the “Lost in Space” title was added to the cover.

The book Silver Age: The Second Generation of Comic Artists by Daniel Herman explains that when the Lost in Space TV series came out in 1965, it was obvious that it was inspired, at least in part, by the comic book, but CBS , the network airing the show, had never acquired the license from Western Publishing . Rather than sue CBS or Irwin Allen, Western in the world. Since CBS and Irwin has been licensed to Western, Western did not want to antagonize them. Also, the TV show title is likely to have sales of the comic book.

Television

The Lost in Space TV series is an adaptation of the novel The Swiss Family Robinson . citation needed ] The astronaut family of Dr. John Robinson, accompanied by an Air Force pilot and a robot , set out from an overpopulated Earth in the spaceship Jupiter 2 to visit a planet circling the star Alpha Centauri with hopes of colonizing it. Their task in 1997 (the official date of launch of the Jupiter 2 Was October 16, 1997) is time immediately sabotaged by Dr. Zachary Smith, Who briefs aboard Their spaceship and reprograms the robot to destroy the ship and crew.

Smith is trapped aboard, and saves himself by prematurely reviving the crew of suspended animation . They save the ship, but let them get lost in space. Eventually they crash on an alien world, later identified as Priplanis, where they must survive a host of adventures. Smith (Whom the show’s writer Originally Intended to kill off) citation needed ] remains through the series as a source of comedic cowardice and villainy, exploiting the forgiving (or forgetful) Nature of the Robinsons.

Video games

Several videogames have explored this theme, placing players in hostile environments where they must work towards a specific goal or As such, Robinsonade video games can be included in the broader genre Survival game . A few examples of this genre are in the Stranded series and The Forest .

Examples

Literature

Ordered by date of publication

  • The Isle of Pines ( Henry Neville , 1668) [6]
  • Die Insel Felsenburg ( Johann Gottfried Schnabel , 1731)
  • The Female American (anon., 1767)
  • Iphigenia in Tauris ( Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , 1787) (based on Iphigeneia in Tauris by Euripides )
  • The Swiss Family Robinson ( Johann David Wyss , 1812)
  • Masterman Ready, or the Wreck of the Pacific ( Frederick Marryat , 1841)
  • The Coral Island ( RM Ballantyne , 1857)
  • Uncle Robinson ( Jules Verne , 1870, unpublished until 1991)
  • The Mysterious Island ( Mysterious Island ) ( Jules Verne , 1874)
  • Godfrey Morgan ( The School of Robinsons ) ( Jules Verne , 1882)
  • Two Years ‘Vacation ( Two Years’ Vacation ) ( Jules Verne , 1888)
  • The Jungle Book ( Rudyard Kipling , 1894) – The Mowgli Stories
  • The Island of Dr. Moreau ( HG Wells , 1896)
  • I Robinson italiani ( Emilio Salgari , 1896)
  • The Purple Cloud ( MP Shiel , 1901)
  • The Admirable Crichton ( JM Barrie , 1902)
  • The Blue Lagoon ( Henry De Vere Stacpoole , 1908)
  • Baby Island ( Carol Ryrie Brink , 1937)
  • Biggles in the South Seas ( Captain WE Johns , 1940)
  • The Black Stallion ( Walter Farley , 1941)
  • The Moon is Hell ( John W. Campbell, Jr. , 1950)
  • Lord of the Flies ( William Golding , 1954)
  • Tunnel in the Sky ( Robert A. Heinlein , 1955)
  • Pincher Martin ( William Golding , 1956)
  • Danny Dunn on Desert Island ( Raymond Abrashkin and Jay Williams , 1957)
  • The Survivors ( Tom Godwin , 1958)
  • Robinson ( Muriel Spark , 1958)
  • Island of the Blue Dolphins ( Scott O’Dell , 1960)
  • Transit ( Edmund Cooper , 1964)
  • The Flight of the Phoenix ( Elleston Trevor , 1964)
  • A Far Sunset ( Edmund Cooper , 1967)
  • Friday ( Friday or Pacific Limbo ) ( Michel Tournier , 1967)
  • The Other Side of the Mountain ( La Montagne Still Life ) (Michel Bernanos, 1967)
  • Providence Island ( Calder Willingham , 1969)
  • Concrete Island ( JG Ballard , 1973)
  • Shipwreck ( Charles Logan , 1975)
  • Abel’s Island ( William Steig , 1976)
  • Friday and Robinson ( Friday or Wildlife ) ( Michel Tournier , 1977)
  • We Who Are About To … ( Joanna Russ , 1977)
  • The Clan of the Bear Cave ( Jean M. Auel , 1980)
  • Castaway ( Lucy Irvine , 1983)
  • Crusoe’s Daughter ( Jane Gardam , 1985)
  • Foe ( JM Coetzee , 1986)
  • Hatchet ( Gary Paulsen , 1987)
  • The Island of the Day Before ( Umberto Eco , 1994)
  • Robert Crews ( Thomas Berger , 1994)
  • Life of Pi ( Yann Martel , 2001)
  • Oryx and Crake ( Margaret Atwood , 2003)
  • The Stone Gods ( Jeanette Winterson , 2007)
  • Nation ( Terry Pratchett , 2008)
  • The Martian (Andy Weir, 2012)

Other media

  • Robinson Crusoe on Mars (movie, 1964)
  • Gilligan’s Island (TV series, 1964-1967)
  • Lost in Space (TV series, 1965-1968)
  • Lt. Robin Crusoe, USN (movie, 1966)
  • Hell in the Pacific (movie, 1968)
  • Lost Flight (TV movie, 1969)
  • Nadia: The Secret of Blue Water (TV series, episodes 1990-1991)
  • Cube (movie, 1997)
  • Cast Away (movie, 2000)
  • Survivor (TV series, 2000-present)
  • Cube 2: Hypercube (movie, 2002)
  • Panic Room (movie, 2002)
  • Cube Zero (movie, 2004)
  • Lost (TV series, 2004-2010)
  • Flight 29 Down (TV series, 2005-2007)
  • Lost in Blue (video game, 2005)
  • FreakAngels (webcomic, 2008-2011)
  • Castaway on the Moon (movie, 2009)
  • Moon (movie, 2009)
  • The Martian (movie, 2015)
  • Robinson’s Requiem (video game, 1994)

See also

  • Homage
  • Nautical fiction

References

  1. Jump up^ Steampunkanthology, 2008, ed. Ann VanderMeer&Jeff VanderMeer,ISBN 978-1-892391-75-9
  2. Jump up^ Empire Islands: Castaways, Cannibals, And Fantasies of Conquest, by Rebecca Weaver-Hightower, University of Minnesota P, 2007,ISBN 978-0816648634
  3. Jump up^ (in German) Die Insel Felsenburg , 1731,Johann Gottfried Schnabel
  4. Jump up^ Sears List of Subject Headings, 18th ed., Joseph Miller, ed. (New York: The HW Wilson Co., 2004)
  5. Jump up^ Dewey Decimal Classification and Relative Index, 22d ed. (Dublin, Ohio: OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc., 2003)
  6. Jump up^ It has been cited before the first robinsonade beforeDefoe’s work. Derrick Moors (1988). “Imaginary Voyages” . The Troube Journal n.41 . State Library of Victoria . Retrieved 23 December 2013 .