A retreat is a place of refuge for those in the survivalist subculture or movement. A retreat is also sometimes called a bug-out location ( BOL ). Survivalist retreats are intended to be self-sufficient and easily defended, and are located in sparsely populated rural areas .
While fallout shelters have been advocating since the 1950s, dedicated self-sufficient survivalist retreats have been advocating only since the mid-1970s. The survival retreat concept has been touted by a number of influential survival writers including Ragnar Benson , Barton Biggs , Bruce D. Clayton , Jeff Cooper , Cresson Kearny , James Wesley Rawles , Howard Ruff , Kurt Saxon , Joel Skousen , Don Stephens , Mel Tappan , and Nancy Tappan . [ quote needed ]
With the Increasing inflation of the 1960s, the impending US monetary devaluation , the continuing concern with feasible nuclear exchanges entre the US and the Soviet Union , and the Increasing vulnerability of urban centers to supply Shortages and other systems failures, a number of Primarily conservative and libertarian thinkers that individual preparations would be wise. Harry Browne began offering seminars in 1967 on how to survive a monetary collapse. He worked with Don Stephens, an architect, survival bookseller, and author, who provided a remote survival retreat. He provided a copy of his originalRetreater’s Bibliography (1967) for each participating seminar.
Articles on the subject Appeared in small-distribution libertarian Such publications as The Innovator and Atlantis Quarterly . It was also from this period that Robert D. Kephart began publishing Inflation Survival Letter  (later renamed Personal Finance ). The newsletter is a continuing section on the topic of personal preparation by Stephens for several years. It promotes expensive seminars around the US on the same bailary topics. Stephens participated, along with James McKeever and other defensive investors, hard currency advocates.
In 1975, Kurt Saxon began publishing a newsletter called The Survivor , which advocated moving to lightly populated areas to “lie low” during a socio-economic collapse, and setting up fortified enclaves for the defense of what he termed “killer caravans”   of looters from urban areas.
In 1976, Don Stephens popularized the term “retreater” and advocated relocating to a rural retreat when society breaks down.
Writers such as Howard Ruff is the most popular book in the history of economics, most notably in his 1979 book How to Prosper During the Coming Bad Years , a bestseller in 1979.
For a time in the 1970s, the terms “survivalist” and “retreater” were used interchangeably. The term “retreater” eventually fell out of favor. 
One of the most important newsletters on survivability and survivalist retreats in the 1970s was the Personal Survival (“PS”) Letter (circa 1977-1982) published by Mel Tappan, who also authored the Survival Guns and Tappan on Survival . The newsletter included columns from Tappan himself, from Jeff Cooper, Al J. Venter, Bill Pier, Bruce D. Clayton, Rick Fines, Nancy Mack Tappan, JB Wood, Carl Kirsch, Charles Avery, Karl Hess , Eugene A Barron, Janet Groene, Dean Ing , Bob Taylor, Reginald Bretnor , CG Cobb, and several other writers, some under pen names. The majority of this newsletter revolved around selecting, constructing and logistically equipping survival retreats. Following Tappan’s death in 1980, Karl Hess took over publishing the newsletter, eventually renaming it Survival Tomorrow .
Survivalist retreat books of the 1980s Were typified by the 1980 book Life After Doomsday  by Bruce D. Clayton, Advocating survival retreats in local That Would minimize fallout , as well as specially Constructing blast shelters and / or fallout shelters That Would Provide Protection in the event of a nuclear war .
Several books published in the 1990s on the subject of survival retreats and relocation. Some influential in survivalist circles are Survival Retreat: A Total Plan for Retreat Defense by Ragnar Benson, Strategic Relocation-North American Guide to Safe Places by Joel Skousen , and The Secure Home , (also by Skousen).
2000 to present
In recent years, advocacy of survivalist retreats has had a strong resurgence after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City in 2001, the 2002 attacks and 2005 attacks in Bali , the 2004 Madrid train bombingsin Spain , and the 2005 public transportation bombings in London . [ quote needed ]
Several books published since 2000 Advocate Survival Retreats and Relocation. Some That-have-been PARTICULARLY influential in survivalist circles are How to Implement a High Security Shelter in the Home by Joel Skousen, Rawles is Retreats and Relocation by James Wesley Rawles , and Life After Terrorism: What You Need to Know to Survive in Today’s World by Bruce D. Clayton. 
Online survival websites, forums, and blogs (such as SurvivalBlog) discuss the best local for survival retreats, how to build, fortify, and equip them, and how to form survivalist retreat groups. 
US subprime mortgage crisis has been expanded to a wider cross-section of the populace to change their homes.  James Wesley Rawles, the editor of SurvivalBlog was quoted by the New York Times in April 2008 that “is interested in the survivalist movement, is experiencing its largest growth since the late 1970s.” He also stated that his blog’s conservative core readership has been supplemented with “an increasing number of stridently green and left-of-center readers.” 
Necessity of retreats
Mel Tappan Was quoted in 1981 by AP correspond Then Peter Arnett That: “The concept MOST Fundamental to long-term disaster preparedness, in retreating, is Having a safe place to go to Avoid the Concentrated violence Destined to erupt in the cities.” 
Common retreat locale parameters
Common retreat local selection parameters include light population density, plentiful water, arable land , good solar exposure for gardening and photovoltaics , situation above any flood plains, and a diverse and healthy local economy.  Fearing rioting, looting and other unrest, many survivors advocating selecting local retreats that are more important than metropolitan region. Properties that are not in “channelized areas” or “refugee lines of drift” are also touted. 
One of the key goals of retreats is to be self-sufficient for the duration of societal collapse . To that end, water and soil are paramount considerations. Beyond that, a priority is situation on isolated, defensible terrain. Typically, retreats do not want their homes or structures.
James Wesley Rawles  and Joel Skousen  both recommend the Intermountain West region of the United States as a preferred region for relocation and setting up retreats. Although it has had a higher population density, it is more likely to be in Oregon , where it lived,  primarily because of its predisposition to nuclear targets in the United States.
Mel Tappan was disappointed by the demographics of southwestern Oregon after the survivalist influx of the late 1970s. “Too many doctors and lawyers” relocated to Oregon, “not enough plumbers, electricians, or carpenters.” 
Evacuation to a retreat
While some survivors recommend living at a rural retreat year-round,  most survivors can not afford to do so. Therefore, they rely on keeping a well-stocked retreat, and plan to go there “at the 11th hour”, as necessary. They keep a bug-out handy bag , and may have a dedicated bug-out vehicle (BOV). This is a vehicle that the owner is prepared for in the event of an emergency evacuation . Typically a BOV is equipped with a variation on the bug-out bag that includes additional automotive supplies, clothing, food and water. Survivalists tend to favor four wheel drive trucks and SUVsdue to their greater off-road abilities. In the event of a nuclear disaster, survivalists may be more likely to have significant electronic components that would otherwise be damaged by the electromagnetic pulse that accompanies a nuclear explosion.
Most survivalist retreats are created by individuals and their families, but larger “group retreats” or “covenant communities” are formed along the lines of an intentional community .
Retreat architecture and security
Jeff Cooper popularized the concept of hardening retreats against small arms fire. In an article titled “Notes on Tactical Residential Architecture” in Issue # 30 of the PS Letter (April, 1982), Cooper suggests using the ” VaubanPrinciple”, “projecting bastion corners would prevent miscreants from being able to approach” retreat’s exterior walls. any blind spots. Corners with this simple implementation of a Vauban Star are now called “Cooper Corners” by James Wesley Rawles, in honor of Jeff Cooper.  DEPENDING on the size of the group Needing Shelter design elements of traditional European castle architecture, as well as Chinese Fujian Tulou and Mexican walled courtyard houses have been suggested for survival retreats.
In both his book Rawles on Retreats and Relocation and in his survivalist novel, Patriots: A Novel of Survival in the Coming Collapse , Rawles describes in great detail retreat groups “upgrading” brick or other masonry houses with steel reinforced window shutters and doors, excavating anti-vehicular ditches, installing warded gate locks, constructing concertina wire barriers and fougasses , and setting up listening post / observation posts (LP / OPs.) Rawles is a proponent of a mantrap focus at survival retreats, an architectural element that he calls a “crushroom”. 
Bruce D. Clayton and Joel Skousen have written extensively on integrating fallout shelters into retreat homes, but they are less interested in ballistic protection and exterior perimeter security than Cooper and Rawles.
Anticipating long periods of time in the future. They are stockpiles of supplies for their own use, for charity, and for barter . Frequently cited key logistics for a retreat include long term storage food, common caliber ammunition, medical supplies, tools, gardening seed, and fuel. In an article titled “Ballistic Wampum” in Issue # 6 of PS Letter (1979) Jeff Cooper wrote about stockpiling ammunition far in excess of its own needs, keeping the extra available for use for bartering.
In their books, Joel Skousen, Mel Tappan and Howard Ruff all emphasize the need to have a one-year supply of food storage.
Mainstream economist and financial adviser Barton Biggs is a proponent of well-stocked retreats. In his 2008 book Wealth, War and Wisdom , Biggs has a gloomy outlook for the economic future, and suggests that investors take survivalist measures. In the book, Biggs recommends that it should “assume the possibility of a breakdown of the civilized infrastructure.” He goes so far as to recommend setting up survival retreats: “Your safe haven must be self-sufficient and capable of growing some kind of food, “Mr. Biggs writes. “It should be well-stocked with seed, fertilizer, canned food, wine, medicine, clothes, etc. Think Swiss Family Robinson. Even in America and Europe there could be moments of riot and rebellion when law and order only breaks down. ” 
Survivalist retreats worldwide
Survivalist retreats, both formal and informal exist worldwide, most visibly in Australia,  Belgium, Canada,  France,  Germany  (often organized under the guise of “adventuresport” clubs),  New Zealand,  Norway, Russia,  Sweden,  and the United States. 
Government operated retreats
Construction of government-built retreats and underground shelters-roughly analogous to survivalist retreats-has been done extensively since the advent of the Cold War , especially of public nuclear fallout shelters in many nations. The United States Government has created Continuity of Government (COG) shelters built by the Department of Defense and Federal Emergency Management Agency (“FEMA”). These include the massive shelter built under the Greenbrier Hotel (aka Project Greek Island ), military facilities like Cheyenne Mountain Complex , and the Raven Rock Mountain Complex andMount Weather sites. Other nations’ facilities include the Swiss redoubt fortress systemand Its dual use facilities like the Sonnenberg Tunnel and Norway’s Sentralanlegget bunker in Buskerud County.
Robert A. Heinlein featured in the survivalist retreats in some of his science fiction. Farnham’s Freehold (1964) begins as a story of a small group in a survivalist retreat during a nuclear war. Heinlein also wrote essays such as How to be a Survivor , which provides information for the preparation of a nuclear war, including stocking a fallout shelter and retreat.
Malevil by French writer Robert Merle (1972) describes refurbishing a medieval castle and its use as a survivalist stronghold in the aftermath of a full-scale nuclear war. The film was directed by Christian de Chalonge and starringMichel Serrault , Jacques Dutronc , Jacques Villeret and Jean-Louis Trintignant . 
Lucifer’s Hammer by Jerry Pournelle and Larry Niven (1977) is about a cataclysmic comet hitting the Earth, and a group of people struggling to survive the aftermath.
Patriots: A Novel of Survival in the Coming Collapse by James Wesley Rawles (2009) describes how the lead characters establish a self-sustaining survival retreat in north-central Idaho .
Jericho (2006) is a TV series that portrays a small town in Kansas after a series of nuclear explosions across the United States. In the series, the character Robert Hawkins uses his prior planning and survival skills in the preparation of the attacks. Although it is not fortified, the city becomes a large scale retreat, for its residents.
The text of some books can be found online:
- Fallout Protection (1961) 
- Nuclear War Survival Skills by Cresson Kearny (1979, updated 1987 version) ISBN 0-942487-01-X
- Survival Under Atomic Attack (1950) 
- Tappan on Survival by Mel Tappan (1981) ISBN 0-916172-04-X 
- Textfiles.com archive of articles that circulated during the BBS era, includes several Kurt Saxon articles from his old newsletter: Article archives
- Blast shelter
- Bug-out bag
- Fallout shelter
- Intentional community
- Survival kit
- Tsunami house
- Jump up^ “Robert D. Kephart (1934-2004)” . Interesting.com . Retrieved 2013-11-21 .
- Jump up^ “The Killer Caravans” . Textfiles.com . Retrieved 2013-11-21 .
- Jump up^ CARAVANS.php
- Jump up^ “What is Survivalism?” . AusSurvivalist. 2008-04-15 . Retrieved 2013-11-21 .
- Jump up^ “Articles Magazine By Jeff Cooper” . Frfrogspad.com . Retrieved 2013-11-21 .
- Jump up^ Life After Doomsday, by Bruce D. Clayton,Dial Press,ISBN 0-8037-4752-7
- Jump up^ Life After Terrorism by Bruce D. Clayton
- Jump up^ “Yahoo Groups” . Groups.yahoo.com. 2013-04-30 . Retrieved 2013-11-21 .
- ^ Jump up:a b c d Duck and Cover: It’s the New Survivalism – New York Times
- Jump up^  [ dead link ]
- Jump up^ “SurvivalBlog.com” . SurvivalBlog.com . Retrieved 2013-11-21 .
- Jump up^ www.jollymoon.com. “Glossary” . Survivalblog.com . Retrieved 2013-11-21 .
- Jump up^ “SurvivalBlog.com” . SurvivalBlog.com . Retrieved 2013-11-21 .
- Jump up^  ArchivedDecember 21, 2007, at theWayback Machine.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Mitchell Dancing at Armageddon excerpt
- Jump up^ “The Self-Sufficient Retreat, and” Working the Kinks Out ” ” . Survivalblog.com. 2006-02-22 . Retrieved 2013-11-21 .
- Jump up^ “Letter Re: Home Robbery Invasion Countermeasures – Your Mindset and Architecture” . Survivalblog.com. 2008-12-30 . Retrieved 2013-11-21 .
- Jump up^ “The Meme Crushroom: A Key Retreat Architecture Element” . Survivalblog.com. 2009-06-26 . Retrieved 2013-11-21 .
- Jump up^ Donaldson, Janaia (2006-11-23). “Head for the hills – the new survivalists” . Energybulletin.net . Retrieved 2013-11-21 .
- Jump up^ Gazette, The. (2008-11-05)Survivalist Cuisine: Apocalypse grade tomatoes. Canada.com. Retrieved on 2010-11-14.
- Jump up^ “Dealing with risks and crisis situations” . The-project-olduvai.kanak.fr . Retrieved 2013-11-21 .
- Jump up^ Pancevski, Bojan. (2007-06-17)Bunkers in vogue as cold war fears rise. Telegraph. Retrieved on 2010-11-14.
- Jump up^ “Open Directory – World: Deutsch: Freizeit: Outdoor: Survival” . Dmoz.org . Retrieved 2013-11-21 .
- Jump up^ New Zealand Survivalism Resources ArchivedOctober 26, 2014 at theWayback Machine.
- Jump up^ “Klar for damage” . DN.no . Retrieved 2013-11-21 .
- Jump up^ “Survivors stock up for End of Days – RT News” . Rt.com . Retrieved 2013-11-21 .
- Jump up^  ArchivedNovember 1, 2010, at theWayback Machine.
- Jump up^ Howo.k.To Be A Survivor by Robert Heinlein
- Jump up^ “Malevil (1981)” . IMDb.com . Retrieved 2013-11-21 .
- Jump up^ Fallout Protection
- Jump up^ Survival Under Atomic Attack
- Jump up^ Mel Tappan. “Tappan on Survival” . Webcitation.org. Archived from the original on October 26, 2009 . Retrieved 2013-11-21 .