Location awareness

Location awareness refers to devices that can passively or actively determine their rental. Navigational instruments providing locations for vessels and vehicles. Surveying equipment rental identified with respect to a well-known RentA wireless communications device. Network location awareness (NLA) describes the location of a node in a network. [1] [2]

The term applies to navigating , real-time locating and positioning support with global, regional or local scope. The term has been applied to traffic , logistics , business administration and leisure applications. Location awareness is supported by navigation systems , positioning systems and / or locating services .

Location awareness without the active participation of the non-cooperative locating or detection.

History of terminology

The term originated for configurations of networks and addressed network entities. Network Location Awareness (NLA) services collect network configuration and location information, and notify applications when this information changes. With the advent of global positioning systems and radio-enabled mobile devices, the term was redefined to include consumer-focused applications.

While renting awareness has begun, the concept has been extended to reflect movement. Context models have been proposed [3] to support context-aware applications, application-related data, increase the accuracy of retrieval information, discover services, make user interaction implicit and build smart environments. For example, a mobile phone can confirm that it is currently in a building. [4]

Determining location

Description in logical terms uses a structured textual form. International standardization offers a common method using ISO / TS 16952 [5] as originated with German standards DIN EN 61346 [6] and DIN EN 81346. [7]

Location in mathematical terms refers to a referenced point of reference .

Location in network terms relates to locating network nodes. These include:

  • ITU-T International Telecommunications Union Q-Series Standards, Telecommunications Signaling System # 7 (SS7) [8] and mirroring ANSI Standards T1.110-General Information and subsequent standards. [9]
  • IEEE media access Addressing selon MAC International Standard ISO / IEC 10038 [10] with ISO / IEC 11802 [11] and ANSI / IEEE [12] edition.
  • ISO procedure call Addressing selon URN / UUID International Standard ISO / IEC 11578 [13] and ISO / IEC 9834 [14] and IETF RFC  4122 . [15]

Variations

“Crisp” locating offers accurate coordinates, using wireless signals or optical sighting, possibly with phase angle measurements. Coordinates are relative to a standardized system of coordinates, eg WGS84 , or a fixed object such as a building plan. Real-time locating adds timely delivery of results, especially for moving targets. Real time locating is defined with ISO / IEC 19762-5 and ISO / IEC 24730-1. [16] Fuzzy locating offers less precision, eg, presence “near” a point of reference. Measuring wireless power levels can supply this degree of precision. Less sophisticated systems can use wireless remote measurements to estimate the point of reference in a polar coordinates(distance and direction) from another site. Index locating indicates presence, RFID readers and RFID tags. [17]

Applications

Location-aware systems address the acquisition of coordinates in a grid (for example using distance metrics and lateration algorithms) or at least distances to reference points (for example discriminating the presence of a certain choke point on a corridor or in a room of a building) . [18]

Navigation

Navigation and reckoning are key concerns for seafarers , aviators and professional drivers. The task is to dynamically determine the current location and time, distance and direction to destination. Radar served for regional demand and NAVSTAR satellite systems for global demand. GPS and similar systems have become ubiquitous in long-haul transport operation and are becoming a standard automotive feature. [19]

Surveying

Surveying is the static complement to navigating. It is essential for the construction of land and buildings for architects and civil engineers . Optical surveying technology preceded by LASER triangulating aids. [20]

Business process

Currently location awareness is applied to design innovative process controls , and is integral to ubiquitous and wearable computing . On mobile devices, location aware search can prioritize That results are close to the device. Conversely, the device may be disclosed to others, at some cost to the bearer’s privacy. [21]

Warehouse and routing

RFID provides a time / location reference for an object, but does not indicate that the object remains at that location, which is sufficient for such applications that , such as charging tolls for crossing a bridge. [22] [23]

Consumer

Location awareness enables new applications for ubiquitous computing systems and mobile phones . Such applications include the automatic reconfiguration of a device that is currently being used (examples include ControlPlaneand Locamatic ), or authoring a user ‘s location, and allowing retailers to publish. potential customers who are near to the retailers. Allegedly, individuals gain self confidence with confirmation of current whereabouts . [24]

Infrastructure

Whereas governments have created global systems for computing locations, independent localized systems exist at scales ranging from one building to sub-national regions.

Local

Such solutions can be applied to the concepts of RTLS and WPAN , wireless LAN or DECT , with results in the field of floor plans or room numbers. Local systems degrade as distance from locality increases. Applications include the automatic reconfiguration of a computing device which is currently being used.

Regional

This approach uses for example mobile phone systems, Such As 3GPP , GSM or LTE , returning Typically information in standardized coordinates in WGS84 as with standardized formats Such As NMEA for outdoor use or in symbolic coordinates referring to street addresses.

Global

This approach is subsequently assembled GPS technology, Currently Supplied by NAVSTAR in May and future employee pending the Galileo (satellite navigation) system, Generally Adopting WGS84 and NMEA. Applications include avalanche rescue or emergency and mountain rescue as well as with search and rescue (SAR) and Combat search and rescue (CSAR).