First aid

First aid is the support Given to-any person Suffering a sudden illness or injury , [1] with care Provided to preserve life, prevent prevention provided from the Worsening, or to Promote recovery. It includes initial response in a serious requirement prior to being white professional medical help available, Such As performing CPR while awaiting an ambulance , as well as the full treatment of minor conditions Such As Applying a plaster to a cut . First aid is carried out by the layperson , with many people trained to provide basic levels of first aid, and others willing to do so Mental health first aid is an extension of the concept of first aid to mental health.

There are many situations in which a minimum level of supply and regulation is required. This tool is available in the workplace (such as the Automated External Defibrillator ), the provision of specialist public assistance, or mandatory first aid training within schools. First aid, however, does not necessarily require any prior art, and may require some improvisation with materials available at the time, often by untrained persons. [2]

This article is about the care of human patients.

History

The binding of a battlefield wound on the ancient Greek pottery

Early history and warfare

Has been written in history, especially in relation to warfare , in which the care of both traumatic and medical cases is required in particular large numbers. The Ancient Egyptians (aka people of KMT) are the first known to use bandages including the high genius doctor Imhotep . They are not only used to create mummies but also for the treatment of patients. Most ancient Greek doctors, philosophers, etc. studied in ancient Egypt and then returned to Greece. The bandaging of battle is shown on Classical Greek pottery from 500 BCE, while the parable of the Good Samaritanincludes references to binding or dressing wounds. [3] There are many references to first aid performed within the Roman army , with a system of first aid supported by surgeons, field ambulances, and hospitals. [4] Roman legions had the specific role of capsarii, who were responsible for such bandaging, and are the forerunners of the modern combat medic . [5]

Further examples occur in history, still mostly related to battle, with the help of the Knights Hospitaller in the 11th century CE, providing the pilgrims and knights in the Holy Land . [6]

Formalization of life saving treatments

During the late 18th century, drowning as a cause of death was a major concern among the population. In 1767, a society for the preservation of life was begun in Amsterdam , and in 1773, physician William Hawes began publicizing the power of artificial respiration as means of resuscitation of those who appeared drowned. This led to the formation, in 1774, of the Society for the Recovery of Persons Apparently Drowned, later the Royal Humane Society , who did much to promote resuscitation. [7] [8]

Napoleon’s surgeon, Baron Dominique-Jean Larrey , is credited with creating an ambulance corps (the ambulance flying), which included medical assistants, tasked to administer first aid in battle.

In 1859 Jean-Henri Dunant witnessed the aftermath of the Battle of Solferino , and his work to the formation of the Red Cross , with a key stated aim of “helping to sick and wounded soldiers in the field”. [6] The Red Cross and Red Crescent are still the largest provider of first aid worldwide. [9]

Esmarch bandage showing soldiers how to perform first aid

In 1870, Prussian military surgeon Friedrich von Esmarch introduced the first steps to the military, and the first half of the term “erste hilfe” (translating to “first aid”), including training for soldiers in the Franco-Prussian War on care for wounded comrades using pre-learned bandaging and splinting skills, and making use of the Esmarch bandage which he designed. [3] The bandage was issued as standard to the Prussian fighters, and also included aide-memoire pictures showing common uses.

In 1872, the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem in England changed its focus from hospice care, and set out to start a system of practical medical help, starting with making a grant towards the establishment of the UK’s first ambulance service. This was followed by 1875 (the St John Ambulance), and in 1877 established the St. John Ambulance Association (the forerunner of modern-day St. John Ambulance ) “to train men and women for the benefit of the sick and wounded “. [10]

Also in the UK, Surgeon-Major Peter Shepherd had seen the benefits of Esmarch’s new teaching of first aid, and introduced an equivalent program for the British Army, and he was the first user of “first aid for the injured” in English, disseminating information through a series of readings. Following this, in 1878, Shepherd and Colonel Francis Duncan took advantage of the new charitable focus of St John, [3] and established the concept of teaching first aid to civilians. The first classes were conducted at the Presbyterian School in Woolwich (near Woolwich Barracks where Shepherd was based) using a comprehensive first aid curriculum.

First aid training Began to spread through the British Empire through organizations Such As St John, starting Often, as in the UK, with high risk activities Such As ports and railways. [11]

Aims

The key is one of three key points, sometimes known as ‘the three P’s’: – [12]

  • Preserve life : The overriding aim of all medical care which includes first aid, is to save lives and minimize the threat of death.
  • Prevent further Top harm : Prevent further Top harm aussi Sometimes called Expired prevent prevention the requirement from Worsening , or risk of further Top injury , this covers Both external factors, Such As moving a patient away from Any causes of harm, and Applying first aid technologies to prevent prevention Worsening of the condition, such as applying pressure to stop bleeding dangerous.
  • Advocate recovery : First aid also involves the recovery of the disease, and may result in treatment, as in the case of a plaster to a small wound.

Key skills

This section does not cite any sources . Please add this section by adding quotes to reliable sources . Unsourced material can be challenged and removed . (May 2010) (Learn how to remove this template message )
In case of tongue fallback, blocking the airway, it is necessary to hyperextend the head and pull up the chin, so that the tongue lifts and clears the airway.

Certain skills are considered essential to the provision of first aid and are taught ubiquitously. Particularly the ” ABCs of first aid, which focus on critical life-saving intervention, must be made before the treatment of serious injuries. ABC stands for Airway , Breathing , and Circulation . The same mnemonic is used by all health professionals . Attention must first be brought to the airway to ensure it is clear . Obstruction ( choking ) is a life-threatening emergency. Following evaluation of the airwaybreathing and providing rescue breathing if necessary. Assessment of traffic is now not usually the carried out for patients Who are not breathing, with first aiders now trained to go straight to chest compressions (and THUS supplier providing artificial circulation) aim pulse checks May be done is less serious patients.

Some organizations add a fourth step of “D” for Deadly bleeding or Defibrillation , while others consider this as part of the Circulation step. Variations on techniques to evaluate and maintain the ABCs depend on the help of the first. Once the ABCs are secured, it is required. Some organizations teach the same order of priority using the “3Bs”: Breathing , Bleeding , and Bones (or “4Bs”: Breathing , Bleeding , Burns , and Bones). While the ABCs and 3Bs are taught to be performed sequentially, certain conditions may require the consideration of two steps simultaneously. This includes the provision of both breathing and chest compressions to someone who is not breathing, and the consideration of cervical spine injury when an open airway.

Preserving life

In order to stay alive, all persons need to have an open airway-a clear passage where can be moved through the mouth or nose through the pharynx and down into the lungs, without obstruction. Conscious people will be able to maintain their self-confidence, but those who are unconscious (with a GCS of less than 8) may be unable to maintain their ability to function properly.

If the patient was breathing, a first aid would then place them in the recovery position , with the patient leant over their side, which also has the effect of clearing the tongue from the pharynx . It also has a common cause of death in unconscious patients, which is choking on regurgitated stomach contents.

The airway can also become blocked in the pharynx or larynx, commonly called choking . The first help will be taught with this combination of ‘back slaps’ and ‘ abdominal thrusts ‘.

Once the airway has been opened, the first would help to see if the patient is breathing. If there is no breathing, the patient is not breathing normally, such as agonal breathing , the first help would be more likely to be accepted than the most recognized first aid procedure-cardiopulmonary resuscitation or CPR, which involves breathing for the patient, and manually massaging the patient. heart to promote blood flow around the body.

Promoting recovery

The first aid is also likely to be trained in dealing with accidents such as cuts , grazes or bone fracture . They may be able to deal with the situation in their entirety (a small adhesive bandage on a paper cut), or may be required to maintain the condition of a broken bone, until the next stage of definitive care (usually an ambulance ) arrived.

Training

First aid scenario training in progress

Basic principles, such as knowing and using adhesive bandages, are often acquired passively through life experiences. However, to provide effective, life-saving first aid interventions requires instruction and practical training. This is especially true where it relates to potentially fatal diseases and injuries, such as those requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR); These procedures may be invasive, and carry a risk of further injury to the patient and the provider. As With Any training, it is more Useful if it OCCURS before an actual emergency , and in Many countries, emergency ambulance dispatchers May give basic first aid instructions over the phone while the ambulance is on the way.

Training leading the way, typically leading to certification. Due to regular changes in procedures and protocols, it is necessary to maintain the level First aid training is available through community organisms Often Such As the Red Cross and St. John Ambulance , providers through trade gold, Who will process people for a fee. This commercial training is most common for training employees in their workplace. Many community organizations also provide a commercial service, which complements their community programs.

Specific disciplines

There are several types of first aid (and first help) which require specific additional training. These are usually undertaken to fulfill the demands of the work or activity undertaken.

  • Aquatic / Marine first aid is usually Practiced by professionals Such As lifeguards , professional mariners or in diver rescue , and covers the specific problems faced after-qui May be water-based rescue or delayed MedEvac .
  • Battlefield first aid takes into account the specific needs of Treating wounded combatants and non-combatants During armed conflict .
  • Hyperbaric first aid can be practiced by scuba diving professionals, who need to treat conditions such as the bends .
  • Oxygen first aid is the providing of oxygen to the sufferings which results from hypoxia .
  • Wilderness First aid is the provision of first aid under conditions in which the occurrence of an emergency is likely to occur. It may be necessary for a person for several days.
  • Mental health first aid is taught independently of physical first aid. How to support someone experiencing a mental health problem? Also, how to identify the first signs of the person developing mental health and guide people to appropriate help.

First aid services

First help of the British Red Crossparade of morris dancers at the Knutsford Royal May Day 2012

Some people in the process of becoming involved in public events, during filming, or other places where people gather. They may be designated as a first aid , or use some other title. This role may be taken on a voluntary basis, with such organizations as the Red Cross and St John Ambulance, or with a medical contractor.

People performing a first aid role, whether in a professional or voluntary capacity, are often expected to have a high level of

Symbols

For more details on this topic, see Emblems of the Red Cross by Use of the Emblems .

This article is commonly used in conjunction with the official symbol of the Red Cross . According to the Geneva Conventions and other international laws, the use of this and other symbols of the International Red Cross Association and Red Crescent , and a protective emblem for medical personnel and facilities in combat situations. Use by any other person or organization is illegal, and may lead to prosecution.

The internationally accepted symbol for the first time is shown below.

Some organisms May make use of the Star of Life , ALTHOUGH this is usually reserved for use by ambulance, or use symbols May Such As the Maltese Cross , like the Order of Malta Ambulance Corps and St John Ambulance . Other symbols may also be used.

Conditions that require first help first 

Also see medical emergency .

  • Altitude sickness , qui can begin in susceptible people at altitudes as low as 5,000 feet, can because Potentially fatal swelling of the brain or lungs . [13]
  • Anaphylaxis , a life-threatening condition in which the airway can become constricted and the patient may go into shock . The reaction can be caused by a systemic allergic reaction to allergens such as insect bites or peanuts. Anaphylaxis is initially treated with injection of epinephrine .
  • Battlefield first aid-This protocol refers to treating shrapnel, gunshot wounds, burns, bone fractures, etc. Either as seen in the ‘traditional’ battlefield setting or in an area subject to damage by wide-scale weaponry, Such As a bombblast.
  • Bone fracture , a break in a bone by fracturing with a splint .
  • Burns , which can result in tissue damage and loss of body fluids through the burn site.
  • Cardiac Arrest , which will lead to death unless CPR is combined within an AED is started within minutes. There are often times when the patient is suffering from sudden cardiac arousal, and the cardiac arrest occurs before reaching the American Heart Association.
  • Choking , blockage of the airway Quickly qui can result in death due to Lack of oxygen if the patient’s trachea is not cleared, for example by the Heimlich Maneuver .
  • Childbirth .
  • Cramps in muscles due to lactic acid build up caused by inadequate oxygenation of muscle or lack of water or salt.
  • Diving disorders , drowning or asphyxiation . [14]
  • Gender-specific conditions, such as dysmenorrhea and testicular torsion .
  • Heart attack , or inadequate blood flow to the blood vessels supplying the heart muscle.
  • Heat stroke, also known as hyperthermia gold , which tends to occur during high humidity, or with inadequate water, although it may occur spontaneously in some chronically ill persons. Sunstroke, especially when the victim has been unconscious, often causes such brain, kidney, liver, gastric tract. Unconsciousness for more than two hours usually leads to permanent disability. Emergency treatment involves rapid cooling of the patient.
  • Hair tourniquet a condition where a hair or other thread becomes tied to a golden finger tightly enough to cut off blood flow.
  • Heat syncope , another stage in the same process as heat stroke, occurs under the same conditions as heat stroke and is not distinguished from the latter by some authorities.
  • Heavy bleeding, with the application of pressure to the wound site and elevating the limb if possible.
  • Hyperglycemia ( diabetic coma ) and Hypoglycemia ( insulin shock ).
  • Hypothermia , or Exposure, occurs when the temperature is below 33.7 ° C (92.6 ° F). First aid for a mildly hypothermic patient includes rewarming, which can be achieved by wrapping the affected person in a blanket, and providing warm drinks, such as soup, and high energy food, such as chocolate. [15] However, rewarming a severely hypothermic person could result in a fatal arrhythmia , an irregular heart rhythm. [16]
  • Insect and animal cocks and stings.
  • Joint dislocation .
  • Poisoning , which can occur by injection, inhalation, absorption, or ingestion.
  • Seizures , or a malfunction in the electrical activity in the brain. Three types of seizures include a large malaise (which usually features convulsions, changes in skin complexion, etc.) and small malfeasance (which usually involves twitching, rapid blinking, or abnormalities).
  • Muscle strains and Sprains , a temporary dislocation of a seal That time immediately Reduces automatically purpose May result in ligament damage.
  • Stroke , a temporary loss of blood supply to the brain.
  • Toothache , which can result in severe pain and is rarely life-threatening, unless osteomyelitis spreads over the bone .
  • Wounds and bleeding , including lacerations , incisions and abrasions , gastrointestinal bleeding , avulsions and chest sucking wounds , treated with an occlusive dressing to let air out but not in.

First Aid Kit

Many accidents can happen at home, office, schools, laboratories etc. which require immediate attention before the patient is attended by the doctor.

Making of the First Aid Kit

Though professional first aid kits are available, one can make a simple kit easily at home. Still, ready made First Aid kits / boxes / pouches / cases are recommended, as they have well organized compartments. To make a first aid kit, a strong, durable bag or transparent plastic box should be taken and a white cross in a green square on the sides and on the top. This will make for easy identification of the box to any user. The kit should be kept as it is in the case of an emergency.

Contents

A First Aid Kit should have the following contents: according to whom? ]

  • first-aid manual different sizes
  • adhesive tape
  • adhesive bandages in several sizes
  • elastic bandage
  • a splint
  • antiseptic wipes
  • soap
  • antibiotic ointment
  • antiseptic solution (like hydrogen peroxide or saline)
  • hydrocortisone cream (1%)
  • acetaminophen and ibuprofen
  • extra prescription medications (if traveling)
  • tweezers
  • sharp scissors
  • safety pins
  • disposable instant cold packs
  • calamine lotion
  • alcohol wipes or ethyl alcohol
  • thermometer
  • tooth preservation kit
  • plastic non-latex gloves (at least 2 pairs)
  • flashlight and extra batteries
  • thermal shock blanket
  • mouthpiece for administering CPR (can be obtained from your local Red Cross)
  • blanket (stored nearby)
  • First Aid Card containing emergency personal information, phone numbers, medications,
  • pocket defribillator

References

  1. Jump up^ First aid manual: 9th edition . Dorling Kindersley. 2009. ISBN  978-1 4053 3537 9 .
  2. Jump up^ “Duct tape for the win! Using household items for first aid needs” . CPR Seattle. Archived from the original on 2014-11-04.
  3. ^ Jump up to:c Pearn, John (1994). “The earliest days of first aid” . The British Medical Journal . 309 : 1718-1720. doi : 10.1136 / bmj.309.6970.1718 . PMC  2542683  . PMID  7820000 . Archived from the original on 2017-02-02.
  4. Jump up^ Eastman, A Brent (1992). “Blood in Our Streets: The Status and Evolution of Trauma Care Systems” . JAMA Surgery . 127 (6): 677-681. doi :10.1001 / archsurg.1992.01420060043008 . Archived from the original on 2014-09-10.
  5. Jump up^ Efstathis, Vlas (November 1999). “A history of first aid and its role in armed forces” (PDF) . ADF Health . Archived (PDF) from the original on 2014-11-30.
  6. ^ Jump up to:b “First Aid: From Witchdoctors & Religious Knights to Modern Doctors”. Archived from the original on January 18, 2012 . Retrieved March 23,2011 .
  7. Jump up^ New Scientist, Vol. 193 No. 2586 (13-19 Jan. 2007), p. 50
  8. Jump up^ Price, John (2014). Everyday Heroism: Victorian Constructions of the Heroic Civilian . Bloomsbury: London. p. 203. ISBN  978-1-4411066-5-0 .
  9. Jump up^ “Event first aid and ambulance support” . British Red Cross. Archivedfrom the original on 2014-09-08.
  10. Jump up^ Fletcher NC. The St John Ambulance Association: its history and its past in the ambulance movement. London: St John Ambulance Association, 1929: 12-3.
  11. Jump up^ Industrial Revolution: St. John ArchivedAmbulance2007-02-20 at theWayback Machine., Retrieved December 10, 2006.
  12. Jump up^ “Accidents and first aid” . NHS Direct. Archived from the original on 2008-05-03 . Retrieved 2008-10-04 .
  13. Jump up^ Cymerman, A; Rock, PB. “Medical Problems in High Mountain Environments.A Handbook for Medical Officers” . USARIEM-TN94-2. US Army Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine and Mountain Medicine Division Technical Report Division. Archived from the original on 2009-04-23 . Retrieved 2009-03-05 .
  14. Jump up^ Longphre, John M .; Petar J. DeNoble; Richard E. Moon; Richard D. Vann; John J. Freiberger (2007). “First aid normobaric oxygen for the treatment of recreational diving injuries” . Undersea and Hyperbaric Medicine . 34 (1): 43-49. ISSN  1066-2936 . OCLC  26915585 . PMID  17393938 . Archived from the original on 2008-06-13 . Retrieved 2009-03-05 .
  15. Jump up^ “Everyday First Aid – Hypothermia” . British Red Cross. Archived from the original on 2014-11-29.
  16. Jump up^ Sterba, JA (1990). “Field Management of Accidental Hypothermia during Diving” . US Naval Experimental Diving Unit Technical Report . NEDU-1-90. Archived from the original on 2011-07-27 . Retrieved 2013-03-15 .