Triangle of Life

The Triangle of Life is a controversial theory about how to survive a major earthquake , typically promoted via viral emails . The theory advocates the methods of protection from the mainstream advice of “drop, cover, and hold” method widely supported by reputable agencies. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] In Particular, the method’s developer and key proponent Doug Copp recommends That at the onset of a major earthquake, building occupants shoulds seek shelter near solid items That would provide a protective space, a void or a space that could prevent injuryor permit survival in the event of a major structural failure, a pancake collapse , and specifically advises against sheltering under tables.

Officials of many agencies, including the American Red Cross and the United States Geological Survey , have criticized the “Triangle of Life” theory, saying that it is a “misguided idea” and “inappropriate” for countries with modern building construction standards where total building collapse is Unlikely. [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]

Theory

According to Copp’s theory, when buildings collapse, the weight of the ceilings falls upon the objects or furniture inside of them, but the height of the object which will tend to end up with a sloping roof over it. Copp terms this space for survival as the triangle of life. The larger and stronger the object, the less it will compact; the less it compacts, the larger the void next to it will be. These triangles are the most common collapsed building.

Criticisms

According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Triangle of Life is a misguided idea about the best location of an earthquake. [7] Critics have argued that it is actually very difficult to know where these triangles will be formed, as objects (including large, heavy objects) often move around during earthquakes. It is also argued that this movement is very dangerous. [12] Statistical studies of earthquake deaths. [13]

Also, there are no warnings for earthquakes, they are more often than not . [14] Different architectural standards in different countries may be different, but for the United States, “Drop, Cover, and Hold On” is recommended. [8]

An Iranian peer-reviewed article in the field of application, the extent of people who are under the coverage, simplicity in transferring concepts, and the probability of reducing casualties and damage in developing countries. It argues that “Drop, Cover and Hold on” was used by many people in the world. It found that the “triangle of life” theoretically could be a better strategy for larger-than-life-sized buildings with a skeleton (wood or concrete) horizontal movement, inability to predict which side of an object would create a survivable space, and that the triangle of life is also difficult to teach and communicate. It concluded that the “Triangle of Life” could not have collapsed. Neither strategy was useful for the majority of the population in rural Iran because of the mud-brick architecture which has no structure. They believe that “Drop, Cover and Hold On” is still a better option for people during an earthquake. could not have collapsed. Neither strategy was useful for the majority of the population in rural Iran because of the mud-brick architecture which has no structure. They believe that “Drop, Cover and Hold On” is still a better option for people during an earthquake. could not have collapsed. Neither strategy was useful for the majority of the population in rural Iran because of the mud-brick architecture which has no structure. They believe that “Drop, Cover and Hold On” is still a better option for people during an earthquake.[15]

Testing

In 1996, Copp claims to have made a film to prove this methodology and to have recreated a model school and home, filling them with 20 mannequins . The buildings were collapsed by earthmoving equipment. Half the mannequins were in “Duck and Cover” positions and the others in Copp’s “Triangle of Life” positions. When copp and his crew re-entered the building after the blast, they calculated that there would be no survivors among the dummies in “Duck and Cover” positions, but 100% survival for those hiding in the triangles beside solid objects. Copp is categorical about the importance of this technique, saying “Everyone who’s just ducks and covers when they collapse is crushed to death – every time without exception.”

However, a critic of Copp has stated that this is a rescue rather than an experiment. [12] Additionally, the exercise did not simulate the lateral movement of earthquakes, which causes pancake collapse, which is more common in areas of extreme poor construction and rare in developed countries. The criticism that Copp’s results are therefore misleading. [12]

See also

  • Earthquake engineering
  • Earthquake preparedness
  • Seismic retrofit

References

  1. Jump up^ Federal Emergency Management Agency,Earthquakes, 26 September 2012, accessed 3 January 2013
  2. Jump up^ Southern California Earthquake Center,Protect Yourself During an Earthquake – Drop, Cover, and Hold On! , 17 December 2012, accessed 3 January 2013.
  3. Jump up^ Red Cross Alaska,”Drop, Cover, and Hold On!” , accessed 3 January 2013.
  4. Jump up^ Government of New Zealand,”Drop, cover and hold the best advice”
  5. Jump up^ Shropshire, UK,”DROP, COVER, AND HOLD ON!”
  6. Jump up^ United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization “protect yourself from falling under the roof”
  7. ^ Jump up to:b United States Geological Survey What is the “triangle of life” and is it legitimate? 5 October 2012, accessed 22 July 2013
  8. ^ Jump up to:b Lopes, Rocky. American Red Cross response to “Triangle of Life” , accessed 3 January 2013, quote: “The Red Cross is not saying that identifying potential is wrong or inappropriate. The American Red Cross, being a US-based organization, does not extend its recommendations to other countries.
  9. Jump up^ New Zealand National Crisis Management Center,”Discredited earthquake safety advice circulated”, 9 September 2010
  10. Jump up^ “‘Safe practice’ urged for earthquake preparedness, Hazard Management Cayman Islands (HMCI) spokesperson
  11. Jump up^ “ODPEM dismisses quake tips from Doug Copp”, Jamaica Observer, January 29, 2010, accessed 3 January 2013
  12. ^ Jump up to:c Petal, Marla, Copp Douglas – Worse Than Urban Legend: Dangerous Advice! And Now For Some Good Advice For Earthquake Safety , September, 2004, accessed 3 January 2013.
  13. Jump up^ Ammon, Charles J.Earthquake Effects (Shaking, Landslides, Liquefaction, and Tsunamis), Penn State University, August 1, 2011, accessed 3 January 2013
  14. Jump up^ Red Cross American,Earthquake: Respond during, accessed 3 January 2013.
  15. Jump up^ Mahdavifar, M., Izadkhah, YO, Heshmati, V. 2010.”Appropriate and Correct Reactions during Earthquakes:” Drop, Cover and Hold on “or” Triangle of Life “”; Journal of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 11, No. 1.
  16. Jump up^ Copp, Doug. “American Rescue Team Article Survival Magazine” . The American Rescue Team International . Retrieved 2010-03-13 .