Digging

Digging is the process of using some of these tools , claws , hands , or tools , to remove material from a solid surface, usually soil or sand on the surface of the Earth . Digging is Actually the combination of two processes, the first being white gold breaking the cutting of the surface and the second being white the removal and relocation of the material found there. [1] In a simple digging situation, this can be accomplished in a single motion, with the digging implement being used to break the surface and immediately fling the material away from the hole or other structure being dug.

Many kinds of animals engage in digging, or as part of burrowing behavior or to search for food or water under the surface of the ground. [2] Historically, humans are engaged in digging for both of these reasons, and for a variety of additional reasons, such as engaging in farming and gardening , searching for minerals , metals , and other raw materials as mining and quarrying , preparing for construction , creating fortifications and irrigation , andexcavations in archeology , searching for fossils and rocks in palaeontology and geology and burial of the dead.

Digging by humans

Reasons for digging

There are a wide variety of reasons for which humans dig holes, trenches, and other subsurface structures. It has been observed that humans have seemingly instinctive desire to dig in the ground, manifesting in childhood :

Some children like to dig in the ground without any definite purpose. These are of various sizes and depth and are often called a lake or pit. A favorite effort is to dig tunnels between two holes. The digging of underground passages seems to have a peculiar fascination for children. [3]

Like other animals, humans dig in the ground to find food and water. Wood-lined water wells are known from the early Neolithic Linear Pottery culture , for example in Kückhoven (an outlying center of Erkelenz ), dated 5090 BC and Eythra , dated 5200 BC in Schletz (an outlying center of Asparn an der Zaya ) in Austria . [4] Humans are unique among animals in the practice of burial of the dead . Intentional burial, particularly with grave goods , may be one of the earliest detectable forms of religious practice since Philip Liebermansuggest, it may mean a “concern for the dead that transcends daily life.” [5] Evidence Suggests que la Neanderthals Were the first human species to driving behavior and burial intentionally bury Their dead, doing so in shallow grave along with stone tools and animal bones. [6] [7] Exemplary sites include Shanidar in Iraq, Kebara Cave in Israel and Krapina in Croatia. Some scholars, however, argue that these bodies may have been granted for secular reasons. [8] Notably, burial of dead bodies and the presence of corpses, and prevents scavengers and other predators from being attracted.

The earliest undisputed human burial, discovered so far, dates back 100,000 years. Human skeletal remains stained with red ocher Were Discovered in the cellar at Skhul Qafzeh , Israel. A variety of grave goods were present at the site, including the mandible of a wild boar in the arms of one of the skeletons. [9]

As human technology advanced, digging has been used for agriculture , mining , and earthworks , and new techniques and technologies have been developed.

Methods of digging

They are able to dig in their sand and soil using their bare hands. The most basic tool for digging is the shovel . [1] In neolithic times and earlier a large animal’s scapula (shoulder blade) was often used as a crude shovel. [10] In modern times, shovels are typically made of metal, with a wooden handle. Because digging is a cutting process, where the soil being contains roots , digging is aided by the shovel being sharpened. [11]

Historically, manual shoveling (often in combination with picking ) was the chief means of excavation in construction, mining , and quarrying , and digging projects employed large numbers of people. After the Industrial Revolution , mechanization via steam shovels and later hydraulic equipment ( excavators such as backhoes and loaders ) However, individual homeowners still often find reasons to engage in manual digging during smaller-scale projects around the home. [1]

Types of digging

  • Archaeological excavation
    • Dump digging
  • Cave digging
  • Clam digging
  • Double digging , technical gardening
  • Gum digging
  • Privy digging
  • Well digging

References

  1. ^ Jump up to:c Carl Dreher, ” The Right Way to Dig “, Popular Science (March 1957), p. 179.
  2. Jump up^ Zen Faulkes, “Morphological Adaptations for Digging and Burrowing” (2013), p. 276-295.
  3. Jump up^ Archer RA, “Spontaneous Constructions and Primitive Activities of Children Analogous to Those of Primitive Man”, in Karl M. Dallenbach, Madison Bentley, Edwin Garrigues Boring, eds.,The American Journal of Psychology(1910), p. 119.
  4. Jump up^ Tegel W, Elburg R, D Hakelberg, Stäuble H, Büntgen U (2012). “Early Neolithic Water Wells Reveal the World’s Oldest Wood Architecture” . PLoS ONE . 7 (12): e51374. doi : 10.1371 / journal.pone.0051374 . PMC  3526582  . PMID  23284685 .
  5. Jump up^ Philip Lieberman. (1991). Uniquely Human . Cambridge, Mass .: Harvard University Press. ISBN  0-674-92183-6 .
  6. Jump up^ Wilford, John Noble (December 16, 2013). “Neanderthals and the Dead”. New York Times . Retrieved December 17, 2013 .
  7. Jump up^ Chris Scarre, The Human Past
  8. Jump up^ “Evolving in their grave: early burials hold clues to human origins – research of burial rituals of Neanderthals” . Findarticles.com. 2001-12-15 . Retrieved 2011-03-25 .
  9. Jump up^ Uniquely Human page 163 . Books.google.com . Retrieved 2011-03-25 .
  10. Jump up^ Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archeology, p. 304.
  11. Jump up^ David Tracey, “How to dig a hole,”Urban Agriculture: Ideas and Designs for the New Food Revolution(2011), p. 119.